The regions of incident electron energy
E_{0} and absorber atomic
number Z to which EMID is applicable are given below for each parameter. The
formulas and the algorithm of
EMID can also be used outside the energy regions given, possibly down to a half
of the lower limit and up to
twice the upper limit, if a moderate errors are tolerated.
 D_{cp}: charge deposition by primary electrons
 E_{0} = 0.524 MeV, Z = 492; accuracy not evaluated numerically
(Ref. 1; Ref. 8 for the extrapolated range).
 D_{e}: energy deposition
 E_{0} = 0.120 MeV, Z = 492; rms deviation = 0.72.5% (Ref. 10).
 D_{eb}: Energy deposition via bremsstrahlung
 E_{0} = 0.1100 MeV, Z = 492; rms deviation relative to the total
energy deposition < or = 2.0%
(Ref. 7).
 D_{ec}: energy deposition via collision
 E_{0} = 0.120 MeV, Z = 492; rms deviation is about 0.72.5% (Ref.
10).
 h_{E}: energyreflection ratio of electrons
 E_{0} = 0.005100 MeV, Z = 492; accuracy not evaluated numerically,
but agreement with ITS Monte Carlo results are satisfying when h_{pE}
is larger than 0.005 (the formula for the numberreflection ratio in Ref. 4
multiplied by the formula for the fractional energy of reflected electrons
in Ref. 13).
 h_{pE}: energyreflection ratio of photons
 E_{0} = 0.1100 MeV, Z = 492; rms deviation = 7.2% (Ref. 5).
 h_{N}: numberreflection ratio of electrons
 E_{0} = 0.00122 MeV, Z = 492; rms deviation = 5.6% (Ref. 4).
 k: numbertransmission ratio
  For normal incidence, E_{0} = 0.00830 MeV, Z = 482; the average
of rms deviation = 3.4% with respect to experimental data published
(Ref. 2, the formula is also in Ref. 9).
 For nonnormal incidence, E_{0} = 0.510 MeV, Z=13, angle of
incidence up to 75 deg; rms absolute deviation is about 0.03
(Ref. 3, the formula is also given in Ref. 12).
 r_{0}: continuous slowingdown approximation range
 E_{0} = 0.1100 MeV, Z = 492; rms deviation = 0.7%, maximum
deviation = 1.5% with respect to EPSTAR database (Ref. 8);
can be used down to 0.01 MeV with moderate accuracy.
 R_{av}: average reach
 E_{0} = 0.00830 MeV, Z = 482; accuracy not evaluated numerically
(Ref. 9).
 R_{ex}: extrapolated range
 E_{0} = 0.1100 MeV, Z = 492; rms deviation = 0.9%, maximum
deviation = 2.0% with respect to ITS Monte Carlo results (Ref. 8); can be used
down to 0.01 MeV with moderate accuracy.
 z_{av}: average penetration depth
 E_{0} = 150 MeV, Z = 492; maximum deviation < or = 2.1% (Ref. 11
with the formula for r_{0}in Ref. 8); for phantom materials used in
medical dosimetry, another formula with higher accuracy is also proposed
in Ref. 11.
